1. a. Latin (or the Old Latin)
b. Syriac (other satisfactory answers: SyroChaldaic, Aramaic, the Peshito)
These were the oldest (first) translations of the New Testament from the original Greek.
2. Sir David Dalrymple -- early British scholar who found all but about 11 verses of the New Testament in the then known writings of the Ancient Church Fathers.
3. The Apostle Paul -- wrote his letters between 50-65 A.D. (C. E.)
4. b. 400 B.C. --when the Prophets and Writings were accepted as Hebrew Scriptures along with the Law (Torah, Pentateuch).
5. c. 250 B.C. --when the Hebrew Old Testament was first translated into Greek.
6. Incunabula (the singular is Incunabulum) -- fairly rare books and Bibles printed before 1501 (1445-1500), the first printed books in the western world. (There was some printing done even earlier in China.)
7. The Council of Jamia --in 90 A.D. (C.E.) this Jewish council fixed the Hebrew canon at the same 39 books that are now also in the Protestant Old Testament of the Bible.
8. Erasmus -- in the 1500's produced editions of the New Testament in Greek used by others to make later vernacular translations of the New Testament.
9. Syriac and Coptic -- were sometimes used as translation sources other than the Greek and Latin Vulgate, the latter of which were much more commonly used.
10. Count Constantin Tischendorf (1815-1874) -- German scholar who published the New Testament in Greek in 8 editions between 1841 and 1869, and discovered Codex Sinaiticus at the monastary of St Catherines in the Sinai Peninsula.
The 3rd Quiz, in a day or two, will be on the English Bible and the Bible in the U.S.A.- look for it.